# Torah Codes Tutorial: 2

# Should We Be Surprised?

- It is no surprise that ELSs of words can be found in texts of any language and that on any given cylinder size, there will be windows where there will be a number of ELSs grouped together.
- Given a set of words, it is no surprise that for a long enough text, there will be ELSs of those words that form in a seemingly compact arrangement on some window of some cylinder.
- ELSs of interesting words do not constitute a code.
- If a table is a Torah code, then it will have a set of ELSs that are in an unusually compact arrangement.
- Unusually compact can only be measure by the probability that an arrangement as compact or better would happen by chance.
- Probability can only be estimated by an experiment with a well defined experimental protocol in which every aspect of the computation and search that is done for the Torah text is identically done for every monkey text.
- Only if the probability of an as compact arrangement happening by chance is sufficiently small should we be surprised.
- All probability statements must be put in a statistical hypothesis testing mode where there is a clear statement about the Null hypothesis that is being tested and what the Alternative hypothesis is against which the Null hypothesis is being tested.

# The Torah Code Hypothesis

The Torah code hypothesis states:- when using the 5 books of the Torah Hebrew text as it exists today
- with probability higher than expected by chance,
- a priori key words which are logically/ historically related
- tend to have their ELSs in a more compact arrangement on a code cylinder
- whose size resonates with a low rank skip ELS of one or more of the primary logically/ historically related words
- and are redundantly encoded

Website content by: Professor Robert M. Haralick